Participants contributed follow-up time from the return of the 1986 questionnaire up to the occurrence of a confirmed stroke, death, or January 31, 1994. Intakes of potassium and other nutrients were energy-adjusted to 2000 kcal/d. 16 Relative risks (RR) were calculated by dividing the incidence of stroke among men in each fifth of energy-adjusted potassium intake at baseline by the incidence among men in the lowest fifth of intake. Similar calculations were done for the other nutrients. We adjusted RRs for age (5-year categories) 17 and used the Mantel extension test 18 to test for linear trends. To adjust for other risk factors, we used pooled logistic regression with 2-year intervals. When the probability of an event within an interval is small, this method is equivalent to a Cox proportional-hazards analysis. 19 Multivariate models included as covariates calendar time (2-year intervals), total energy intake (continuous variable), smoking (current https://hookupranking.com/women-looking-for-men/, past, and 1 to 14, 15 to 24, and ?25 cigarettes/d), alcohol consumption (<5, 5 to 9, 10 to 14, 15 to 29, and ?30 g/d), history of hypertension, history of hypercholesterolemia, parental history of myocardial infarction before age 65 years, profession, and quintiles of body mass index and physical activity. In these models, we evaluated monotonic trends by using the median value of each category and modeling this as a continuous variable. All P values are 2-sided. Covariates were not updated during the follow-up.
Throughout 323 394 individual-numerous years of go after-right up, we documented 328 cases of cerebrovascular accidents (50 fatal), and 210 ischemic, 70 hemorrhagic, and you may forty eight unclassified strokes. Guys throughout the best 5th away from potassium intake (as well as potassium out of medications) had been less likely to want to cigarette, was indeed more personally energetic, and consumed less alcoholic drinks, reduced lbs, a great deal more healthy protein, and a lot more micronutrients than just guys in the bottom 5th (Desk step 1 ). Similar connections was indeed located to possess magnesium, soluble fiber, and you can calcium supplements (analysis perhaps not revealed). The age-adjusted RR out-of full stroke for men on the better 5th of potassium consumption compared with those who work in the bottom 5th is 0.59 (Dining table dos ). Which RR try some attenuated by the improvement for nondietary risk activities (RR=0.62) by after that variations having consumption of magnesium and you will soluble fiber (RR=0.69). Brand new associated relationships having ischemic coronary attack was indeed similar, whereas no tall relationships was basically noticed for hemorrhagic heart attack (studies perhaps not revealed). After that changes having consumption of complete fat, proteins, saturated fat, supplement C, vitamin e antioxidant, carotene, or folic acid didn’t materially replace the connection between potassium intake and you will likelihood of full coronary arrest, neither did improvement for baseline systolic and you may diastolic blood pressure level or addition toward make of a relationships identity anywhere between many years and blood pressure levels.
Intakes of fibre and magnesium were one another inversely on the risk of full coronary arrest during the decades-modified analyses (Desk 2 ). This type of relationships were merely sparingly attenuated because of the variations having nondietary exposure circumstances, even so they was indeed drastically weak during the regression habits one to on top of that provided potassium, magnesium, and you can fibre because of the self-confident correlations ranging from intakes out of such nourishment (Pearson relationship coefficients were 0.65 to own magnesium and you may potassium, 0.62 to possess magnesium and dietary fiber, and 0.58 getting potassium and soluble fiber).
Neither calcium supplements neither sodium intake (study perhaps not revealed) is somewhat for the likelihood of complete, ischemic, or hemorrhagic stroke. Salt consumption was also unrelated to intake out of potassium (Pearson relationship = ?0.02) and wasn’t analyzed next. Due to the fact inside the a previous studies an inverse connection was said between calcium supplements regarding milk products offer and you will threat of heart attack, 20 i looked at it relationships within our cohort. The brand new multivariate exposure for the most useful weighed against the beds base quintile regarding dairy calcium supplements consumption is 0.83 (95% CI, 0.59, 1.17) for complete (Desk 2 ), 0.ninety (95% CI, 0.59, step one.37) to possess ischemic, and you can 0.73 (95% CI, 0.36, 1.51) to own hemorrhagic coronary arrest; a minimal frequency of any benefit is noticed in the center quintile from consumption. Plus, i tested whether the likelihood of heart attack was down certainly boys which advertised using calcium during the baseline. The newest RR for males whom grabbed ?400 mg/d away from supplemental calcium weighed against nonusers try 0.88 getting total stroke (95% CI, 0.sixty, 1.27) and 0.83 to possess ischemic coronary attack (95% CI, 0.52, step one.34).